ISSN 1842-4562
Member of DOAJ

Ordinal Regression to Analyze Employees’ Attitudes towards the Application of Total Quality Management

Elsayed A. H. ELAMIR
Hassan E. SADIQ


generalized linear model, regression, quality management


The ordinal regression method was used to model the relationship between the ordinal outcome variable, e.g. different levels of employees' attitude regarding the overall working experience in the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) in University of Bahrain (UOB), and the explanatory variables concerning demographics and employees working environment in UOB. The outcome variable for employees' attitudes was measured on an ordered, categorical five-point Likert scale. The major decisions involved in the model building for ordinal regression were deciding which explanatory variables should be included in the model and choosing the link function (e.g. logit link, probit link, negative log-log link and complementary log-log link) that demonstrated the model appropriateness. In addition, the model fitting statistics, the accuracy of the classification results and the validity of the model assumptions, e.g., parallel lines, were essentially assessed for selecting the best model. One of our main finding is that suitable environment for development of staff capabilities and opportunities to train on the skills of solving routine and non-routine problems are highly significant with the employee's attitude toward the application of TQM.